Posters – University of Copenhagen


Overview of posters

Aidan Joseph Ffrench


Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council
Republic of Ireland

People, Place, Quality of Life – G.I in Ireland

Ireland’s neo-liberal model impacted negatively on society and environment. Today ingrained urbanisation, fossil-fuel-dependency, severe Climate Change impacts continue, against a background of diminished skills capacity, dysfunctional governance, ‘policy lip-service’ and low infrastructure investment.
Despite this, inspiring examples of progress persist - connecting People, Nature, heritage in urban settings; driven by civil society and public sector champions. Villages, towns and cities are new foci for G.I, community place-making and urban horticulture. State ‘actors’ are beginning to deliver practical projects for the Common Good (quality of life: ecology, health, economy, social solidarity). Examples of built environment professions moving toward adopting progressive planning and design solutions slowly emerge, informed by C.P.D, international knowledge-sharing: vital to success. Themes:- Urban Green Infrastructure - Planning and Governance (Strategies), Multi-functional NBS (Nature Based Solutions) – CDP / Pilot Demonstrators, Placemaking – Community Gardening, Greenspace Activism.
Dlr’s Green Infrastructure Strategy is a holistic response to this trend - an award-winning, multi-disciplinary project - led by Landscape and Planning Professionals. It comprises 3 strands: Smart Movement, Natural Heritage, Water Management, using greenways for eco-tourism, exercise/ecotherapy; programming Pilot Demonstrator projects in biodiversity, constructed wetlands, ‘green streets’ and Placemaking; thereby leveraging the diverse synergies that G.I potential offers to people, place and a more sustainable mode than neo-liberalism.

Alan McCulloch


Scottish Environment Protection Agency

Restoring Scotland's Urban rivers and The Water Environment Fund.
The water environment in Scotland is an intrinsic part of our landscape and a vital asset. It provides habitats to support wildlife and ecosystems and resources for our tourism, recreation, agricultural and energy industries.
Over the years, Scotland’s water environment has been affected by a variety of physical pressures, with the result that many rivers, lochs, wetlands and coastlines have been adversely affected.
The Scottish Government provides an annual grant - the Water Environment Fund (WEF) - to improve the physical condition of water bodies that have been damaged by historical activities. This includes financial support for the removal or easement of redundant structures that are barriers to fish migration, and projects to restore natural river shape and function (morphology). This fund is administered by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA).
Part of this grant has been focused on improving rivers in an urban setting and SEPA has worked closely with Local Authorities and other organisations in Scotland to implement solutions that not only improve the water environment but also enhance access and provision of green space within Scottish towns and cities.
This presentation will focus on the work of the fund and the challenges we have faced when trying to achieve improvements to our urban rivers.

Amar Kulkarni

Technical University of Berlin

Planning for Urban Ecological Infrastructure in Pune

The rapidly urbanizing world is posing unprecedented series of challenges in planning and designing sustainable cities. Ecosystem services are dependent on natural resources and are critical for growth of cities. However, the current pattern of urban development focuses on the creation and expansion of gray infrastructure that results in the deterioration of natural environment and the loss of ecosystem services. The research aims at the development of ecologically sustainable infrastructure, which primarily uses ecosystem services to mitigate negative effects of urbanization on the local ecosystems while securing the natural resources. The research uses Pune, India as a study area to evaluate the role of sustainable infrastructure in improving the livability of the inhabitants. Further, the research employs urban ecosystem services theory to assess and categorize the impact of land-use change and processes on the natural ecosystems. The study forms a comprehensive analytical framework and identifies strategies for Urban Ecological Infrastructure (UEI) masterplan. The concept of UEI is based on the identification, restoration, and integration of ecological infrastructure with gray infrastructure to deliver ecosystem services in urban areas. Planning strategy aims at long-term sustainability and explores multi-functionality of UEI under 4 main themes: 1) restoration and conservation of natural habitats, 2) climate change adaptation, 3) sustainable urban drainage system and 4) conservation of biodiversity. The strategy proposes the integration of urban built environment with ecological services to achieve the symbiotic relationship with the natural environment.

Catarina Teixeria


University of Porto


Adaptive Planting Design approach

The garden of the Nursing School of Porto (NSP) was conceived in 1973 by the Landscape Architect Ílidio de Araújo. Today it displays a developed and mature green structure with some remarkable trees performing irreplaceable environmental, aesthetical and social services. The garden is located in Porto, Portugal, near important health and educational facilities and it is almost the remaining green space in an increasing urban context.

The passage of time and the relentless transformation of the city had some visible and negative impacts in the garden: the limits changed, decreasing the available area, new functions were hastily implemented, and pavements and structures have become damaged; but the main problem, and most urgent to solve, was related to the phytosanitary condition of the green structure. A strong aphids attack was compromising the health and stability of remarkable trees that were in danger of being felled, while deficient maintenance practices ruined the shrub layer.A requalification proposal was developed with the main focus of

rehabilitating the green structure of the garden. Additionally, the overall conservation of the garden as well as the introduction of new functions was also taken into consideration. The main focus of this research was, thereby, the development of an Adaptive Planting Design approach introducing, into the garden, target species to solve green structure specific problems. This formula, based on a deep literature review and on new approaches to planting design, defends that a more holistic knowledge of plant performance (simultaneously ornamental, aesthetic and ecological) allows to propose stable communities capable of self-regulating and regenerating, making it possible to multiply the services and maximize the

performance of the vegetation.

Cláudia Fernandes, Isabel Martinho da Silva, Catarina Patoilo Teixeira, and Paulo Farinha-Marques.


Department of Geosciences, Environment and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto. CIBIO-InBIO, Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, University of Porto

Learning and caring – outcomes of a collaborative management experience in Porto Botanic Garden

The University of Porto (UP) holds a vast patrimony, some with strategic importance in the green infrastructure of the city of Porto, such as the Botanic Garden (BG). The UP complex administrative structure reduces the agility of the decision processes, with the conservation of the BG being specially affected by the excessive bureaucracy and shortness of budget and human resources. Since 2015, the BG management organization and the UP’s Landscape Architecture Bachelor Program established an informal agreement in which students participate in the maintenance tasks of the BG.
This collaborative management experience has two main goals: i) to launch a more interactive and practice based teaching model, better adjusted to the student profile of the Millennial Generation; and ii) to test in the BG the POU (Park-Organization-User) model proposed by Randrup and Pearson (2009), where all the parts contribute to and benefit from the process.
The success of this experience was assessed through a questionnaire to the students and interviews to the management and maintenance team of the BG. Almost 90% of the students agree that the learn by doing teaching model improves the overall skills in maintenance techniques and facilitates learning. Most of the students qualify their experience in the practical classes as educational, useful, relaxing and healthy; “tiring” was the most selected unfavorable adjective. The connection with BG was reinforced for almost all the students as well as the connection with nature. Students are aware of their contribution for the care of the BG, acknowledging that it has increased the BG overall quality. This was also perceived by the management and maintenance team of the BG.


Hanna Szymczak, Grzegorz Kmiecik, Marta Szejnfeld  Anna Szymczak-Graczyk

Poznan University of Life Sciences

Archipelago of green spaces as an element of city connections system.
Contemporary cities are based on tiny net of interconnections and relationships. When net’s pattern become bigger, continuity of space and occurrences loses its density. City loses its rhythm, sometimes only for a moment to get it back in a minutes. For time to time rhythm of the city becomes irregular and gets lost in the disconnected sounds, becoming only the reflection of the city noise.
Does form and quality of public spaces can weave city net connections?
The following article is attempted to answer the question: Does urban archipelago of green microspaces have a chance to rescue lost spaces where reach only reflected sounds of the city. Does the system have a chance to become stable element of city net connections or it would be only an archipelago of scattered, green islands, unreadable in the city scale?
On the base of downtown district in Poznan the structure of public spaces were analyzed with considering influence of greenery on public space quality and creation system of connections by green infrastructure.

Isabel Martino da Silva

University of Porto; Portuguese Association for Green Roofs

Greening of the roofs of Porto's deprived neighborhoods to increase quality of life
The benefits of green roofs (GR) are widely acknowledge by the literature. However, little is known about the impact of GR in the quality of life of deprived neighbourhoods.  The project Porto’s Fifth Facade (PQAP), an initiative of the Porto City Council in collaboration with the Portuguese Association for Green Roofs to implement a GR policy in Porto, provides an excellent opportunity to add to this knowledge.
The PQAP includes the identification and mapping of the rooftops able to support the installation of GR, the identification of priority areas according with the maximization of GR benefits, and the design of instruments of implementation of a GR policy in the city of Porto. Crucial to the implementation of the PQAP is the demonstration of the benefits of GR, namely in improving quality of life in the city. As the management of social housing in Porto is under the jurisdiction of the municipality, the installation of GR in social housing neighborhoods can be an excellent and feasible opportunity to such demonstration.
Within this context, this paper presents and discusses a proposal for the installation of GR in 5 social housing neighborhoods in Porto. The proposal includes the choice of the GR typology for each case (extensive, semi-intensive, or intensive), and the evaluation of the benefits generated in terms of quality of life indicators.
GR in Porto social housing proved to be efficient in improving the energetic efficiency of buildings, in reinforcing the city green infrastructure, and in providing recreation opportunities in deprived areas.

Johan Östberg

Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management Sweden

Surging for a way to deal with urban trees!
Urban trees are important for their range of cultural, biological and other social values. These values can however come in conflict due to different interests, legislation and management aims. To be able to preserve and develop these values the public Swedish actors (Association of Municipal Gardeners; Environmental Protection Agency; National Heritage Board; Provincial government; Transport Department; Swedish Church's National Organizations and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) have created a unique model called Fria eller Fälla for managing situations where the values of urban trees come in conflict.
The presentation will focus on the values that urban trees provide and the problems with making these values to coexist, especially when actions need to be taken due to tree diseases, risks, and lack of vitality or poor species distribution.
I will also present how the work with the model was started, what problems that we faced and how the model are used in a wide range of situations across Sweden.

Johan Östberg

Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management Sweden

Ecosystem Disservices an Important Step Towards Gaining Acceptance for Urban Forestry
It is widely recognized that urban trees contribute a vast amount of ecosystem services, but to justify and fully utilize urban ecosystems, it is important to also assess and minimize the disservices they provide.
This study aimed to provide new insights to help understand urban ecosystem disservices. The central research question was whether complaints recorded at municipal park departments could be used as a source of knowledge on urban tree disservices. Data were collected during a full year from the three largest municipalities in Sweden (Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö). This large amount of data gave valuable information in terms of ecosystem disservices, but also perceived disservices reported by urban dwellers.
The information obtained from complaints records was combined with results from a newly conducted, large-scale survey of all Swedish municipalities assessing ecosystem disservices and reasons why trees are cut down in Swedish municipalities. Together, these two sources of information provided in-depth knowledge on how ecosystem disservices, and perceived ecosystem disservices, shape the way that urban forestry is managed and governed.
The results showed that many of the disservices reported could have been avoided by correct planning, management and communication. With correct information on ecosystem disservices, it is therefore possible to guide management, planning and information so that the amount of disservices is reduced and public perceptions of urban forestry are improved.

Mandre Joubert
Juaneé Cilliers and Sarel Cilliers

University of Potchefstroom,

South Africa

Identifying the potential of green infrastructure planning in rural and peri-urban informal settlements of South Africa

Green infrastructure (GI) is based on the following as the “natural and semi-natural areas, strategically planned with other environmental features, designed and managed so as to provide a wide array of eco-systemic services” (Miccoli et al., 2014:1082). Ahern et al., (2014:256) confirms this definition while adding that GI is the “spatially and functionally integrated systems and networks of protected landscapes supported with protected, artificial and hybrid infrastructures of built landscapes that provide multiple, complementary ecosystem and landscape functions to the public, in support of sustainability”. GI is a diversified concept as GI influence numerous challenges of the human and natural interrelationships from a spatial view for strategic contextual natural and human built infrastructure development. Informal settlements stimulate urban sprawl that creates land levelling and stripping off natural benefits, while decreasing water permeability, that promotes no specific built growth pattern and discourage ecosystems eligibility to function. Strategic spatial planning incorporates spatial integrity for the interrelationships between man and nature. GI planning is applied on a sub-regional district scale to incorporate the planning scale of natural elements into the dynamics of the anthropocentric changes. The South African case study covers rural and peri-urban (RPU) boundaries across a metropolitan area that include a rich diversity of habitat regions with different spatial distribution of RPU informal settlements. Using ArcGIS informal settlement influences are buffered with vegetation types to identify the potential GI that are integrated with GI planning principle to presents visual GI planning potential from informal settlement influences.

Martina van Lierop, Corinna Jenal and Stephan Pauleit,


Technical University of Munich and Eberhards Karls University Tübingen

Within the new EU Interreg-project LOS_DAMA!, regional actors work in close cooperation on peri-urban green infrastructure (PUGI) development and enhancement within seven pilot projects in the Alpine Space region. Peri-urban landscapes in Alpine Space city regions are under growing land use pressure. Therefore, there is an increased need to maintain and enhance its natural and cultural assets as important places to connect people, and the city with the surrounding landscape. The aim within the pilot projects is to enhance PUGI planning, governance, and management by generating innovative strategies, and intersectorial and multiscale implementation, while committing stakeholders and improving cooperation and knowledge transfer on all levels; local and municipal to national and European level.
Building on methodology and case study reports from the Green Surge project, and a literature review on planning and innovative governance of green infrastructure, a framework for analysis of PUGI implementation was developed. This framework helps to identify the challenges regarding PUGI, and consequently to select and apply suitable solutions. Moreover, the framework set-up allows comparison between pilot projects, tracking changes within pilot projects over time, and promoting knowledge transfer about present and past experiences concerning PUGI within and outside the LOS_DAMA! network. The outcomes would allow us to test and evaluate solutions identified by the Green Surge project within other contexts and its suitability for practitioners as well as further implementation knowhow.

Nita Mihai-Razvan, Ioja I.C., Onose D.A., Badiu D.L., Hossu C.A.


Centre for Environmental Research and Impact Studies, University of Bucharest, Romania

Facing the urban planning upgrade – promotion of nature-based solutions in Romanian cities
Romanian cities are still facing significant challenges in achieving environmental, economic and social sustainability. Administrations are still searching for instruments which can allow them to easily provide a wide range of ecosystem services to different areas of the cities.
In our study we aimed at finding the efficiency of enforcing nature-based solutions in Romanian cities. Using as case studies representative Romanian cities we extracted information from local development plans and environmental action plans and analyzed them using Grounded Theory which allowed us to identify prominent categories of nature-based solutions present in the documents.
We used these categories in a further analysis using GIS techniques, based on cumulative opportunities measure and TerrSet Ecosystem Services Modeler, which allowed us to map all the areas at city level which have the possibility of sustaining nature-based solutions.
Mapping the potential distribution of most encountered categories in the decision-making process represents a powerful instrument for local administrations in further promoting nature-based solutions as an instrument for achieving environmental, societal and even economic targets.

Teruaki Irie

Tokyo University of Agriculture

Urban green infrastructure planning methods to mitigate urban heat island impacts and associated night-time temperatures using Landsat8 data

This study’s hypothesis is that large heat islands can be fragmented through the use of open space, which allow flows of cool air to reduce night-time temperatures. Using data from Landsat8, a four step method, comprising data collection, data analysis, decision making and final planning, is proposed to enable planning for mitigation of urban heat island effects. (1) Land cover and existing daily surface air temperature maps were generated from the Landsat8 data and summer observatory data from the Meteorological Agency. (2) Surface temperature and air temperature (at 0500 hours) maps were derived using a formula incorporating the ratio of green space within different spatial scales within the survey areas. (3) Predictive maps of surface temperature and air temperature (at 0500 hours) were generated using three alternative green space plans (focused along riversides, streets and in school grounds, respectively), using the same formula. (4) This scenario appraisal approach can contribute to new green infrastructure planning to mitigate the increasingly important issue of urban heat island impacts and night-time temperatures.

Ari Jokinen

University of Tampere

Nature-based strategies through temporalities and stakeholder networks

Nature-based solutions are constituted by living networks that include both human and non-human members. Temporal fit is therefore one of the main challenges in the management and governance of nature-based solutions. For instance, ecological succession can be predicted and managed but it may be difficult because of uncertainties. How to create a stakeholder network which is able to tackle the uncertainties related to such temporalities. Human stakeholder networks have their own temporalities, such as variation in intensity over time or timing and coordination of collaborative action. In this paper, a process-based view is adopted to examine the relationship of stakeholder networks and temporalities as a critical question of nature-based solutions. Different types of temporal fit are conceptualized with illustrative empirical examples. Particular emphasis is put on private companies, as they may have critical expertise which is needed in nature-based solutions, but temporal challenges may limit their contribution. It is discussed how stakeholder theory can be used for understanding the relationship between private companies participating in nature-based solutions and temporalities they have to manage through stakeholder networks.

Chloe Bellamy

Forest Research

Urban green infrastructure (UGI) provides vital health and well-being benefits.

To effectively target resources, we need evidence on what UGI features deliver particular benefits and where these are needed. We developed SPADES™ (SPatial Decisions on Ecosystem Services), a tool that provides quantitative information on multiple ecosystem services at site to city scales. Here we focus on the tool’s cultural component, which consists of a multi-scale MaxEnt modelling approach traditionally applied to predicting species distributions. The model uses georeferenced data from sources such as social media to map where people have received cultural benefits and relates this to indicators of service supply (UGI features) and societal demand within and around the site. By explicitly partitioning our predictors into these two types we are able to explore their relative weight in driving service ‘use’: is a site valuable because of its UGI or because it is in a busy, accessible area (or both)? The resulting maps of predicted service supply and demand can be overlaid, highlighting gaps and hotspots in use. We trialled this method for predicting levels of ‘access to nature’ and recreation across Edinburgh, Scotland and validated the results with a GREEN SURGE participatory mapping survey. The strongest predictors were population densities within 1 – 2 km of a site, but UGI features such as tree density were also key. In summary, we present a flexible framework for mapping the flow of cultural ecosystem services under existing conditions and alternative scenarios, informing the targeted planning of UGI with social benefits.

Claudia Fongar, Ingjerd Solfjeld & Thomas B. Randrup

Norwegian University of Life Sciences,

Comparative analysis Yardstick park user surveys in Copenhagen, Oslo and Stavanger

Urban green spaces should be a crucial element to urban land use plans. Research indicates that a park visit is dependent upon different dimensions, concerning access, safety, tidiness and maintenance, equipment, function and use and nature. The connection of the behaviour of users in one green space to a specific user group and the willingness to travel can give insights for planning and management of green spaces and overall green space networks.
The international Yardstick is a local government management tool, designed as a user survey to record visitor satisfaction and importance of park elements and the behaviour of users. The latter entails a choice of activities carried out, the frequency of the visit and the duration of visit. The former includes ten features, ranging from biotic to infrastructural and abiotic features.
In this study, we have looked into similarities and distinct differences across the Scandinavian countries, all representing Western well-fare states with a high degree of taxation and a related public green space service. Three larger cities were included; the capital of Denmark, Copenhagen, the capital of Norway, Oslo and the city of Stavanger located on the western coast of Norway. The survey was carried out in the summer of 2016.
The analysis indicates that green space users appreciate a combination of biotic, abiotic, and infrastructural elements. Especially women are concerned with maintenance and trash collection and the related perceived safety. Younger age groups are drawn to places that offer fascination and play possibilities.

Fengping Yang

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Historical development and practices of lawns in China

Lawn, the most common human-created and culture-shaped habitat in urban green areas, has recently been questioned because of the negative environmental impacts from intensive lawn management. China, a late adopter of lawns, has a great potential to implement sustainable lawns. Based on a literature review, field observations and interviews with local politicians, lawn managers, landscape architects and local residents in Chinese cities, this study seeks inspiration for sustainable lawns within classical Chinese gardening and European examples and identifies the drivers of lawn development in China. The definition of lawns evolves with the changes in the relationship between human and environment. The Chinese people’s paradigm on lawns is influenced by the trend of westernization and globalization after the 1840s. We conclude that shifting the existing paradigm to environmentally friendly lawn aesthetics and bridging the knowledge gap between researchers and practitioners are challenges in achieving sustainable lawns in China. This paper creates a better understanding of the lawn phenomenon in China and is one step ahead in shifting people’s paradigm of lawns in countries which are later adopters of lawns. Keywords: Chinese lawns; classical Chinese gardens; intensive management practices; paradigm shift; sustainable lawns.

Frazer McNaughton

Scottish Natural Heritage

Planning strategies for green network protection and enhancement

Scottish Natural Heritage as Government advisers on the natural environment have worked collaboratively with Local Authority staff, from a range of departments and disciplines to provide planning strategies for green network protection and enhancement.
The presentation, or preferably group discussion/display of this work, would outline the process of strategy formation which extensively uses facilitation techniques to bring together local experts (and their specialist strategy information) to focus on individual places, the existing condition of the natural environment and the needs or opportunities to provide connectivity or enhancement across a range of pre-agreed place and environmental topics. With the objective of promoting long term strategy and delivery plans for inter-connected and multi-functional green infrastructure, this low budget work has helped energise Local Authority staff, often rallying disparate specialisms behind the green infrastructure message.
Project outputs have formed the basis for settlement level spatial planning strategy, while also being used to guide the production of site development briefs for new urban expansions. Collaborative working between Local Authority staff and SNH staff has also led to the identification of strategically important projects, including proposals for retrofit GI. While much of the planning strategy work is early in its delivery phase, there are some clear examples of success emerging in the delivery of major developments and the progression of individual projects.

Ioan Bica

Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest

Using Green Infrastructure for The Future Sustainable City
The impact of urban development on the environment hampers attempts of communities to protect water resources. How the world manages the development and expansion of the city has a major impact on the quality of water.
Our research aimed to identify and mix technical solutions and town planning measures which have the greatest contribution in reducing the volume of water which flows on the ground surface and can be taken by centralized sewerage systems. The main task, from this point of view is to minimize the urban flooding. We also considered future challenges like the world’s urban population in 2050 (it is estimated that will reach 16 billion) and the forecast scenarios of climate changes.
In order to prepare the future city for this challenges, we used, in our research, green infrastructure concept for the site scale. We found that equipment like “ditches planted with vegetation”, “rainwater ponds”, “wetlands”, “bioswales” are the most suitable solutions for our case study. Components of green infrastructure identified by international research projects conducted so far have been studied only individually, and their effects have been poorly estimated. So, our research studied these components globally, in a system, applicable for Romania but is may be applied also in other similar conditions.
More than this, the objective of the research was to ensure sustainable development of urban localities, efficient and responsible use and reuse of the renewable resource “water”, prioritizing the most rapid and balanced their reintroduction in the natural cycle

Ioja Cristian, Vanau G.O., Carstea E., Gavrilidis A.A., Popa A.M., Talabă O.

University of Bucharest

Between grey and blue - perceptions on ecosystem services of urban lakes
Ecosystem services provided by urban lakes offer a wide range of options between regulatory services of urban climate, pollution control for water and air, biodiversity support, recreation or leisure activities. However, there is a significant difference between the ecosystem services modeled by experts, the practical management of these areas and the perception of the general public on which ecosystem services are most valuable.
For our analysis we applied a number of 200 questionnaires on population resident in the proximity of urban lakes from Bucharest, testing their knowledge about ecosystem services, disservices and trade-offs, as well as collecting spatial data about the places they use for accessing various ecosystem services. In addition we performed an expert-opinion to 30 specialists from various fields related to urban lakes management in Romania. Results were analyzed using SPSS and SuperDecision software, while the spatial model of distribution was realized using ArcGIS 10.x.
Results allowed us to rank ecosystem services according to their perception by the population, which has proven to be different from the experts offering specialized support to public administration. Integrating the needs of population in a participatory planning system for urban lakes represents a significant step in improving the quality of environment in Romanian cities.

Jasmine Thom

University of Melbourne Australia

Redirecting stormwater through tree-based infiltration systems

Extensive impervious surfaces in urban areas convert rainfall to large quantities of stormwater runoff, which causes flash flooding, and degradation of urban streams. At the same time, urban street trees often face low water availability due to the lack of rainfall infiltrating through impervious surfaces to underlying soils. Redirecting stormwater through tree-based infiltration systems could help address these issues concurrently, while promoting stormwater and tree health benefits. This study assesses how infiltration design (e.g. catchment: system size ratio, exfiltration rate, maximum transpiration, tree functional type and size) influences stormwater capture under different climatic conditions and how this affects health and transpiration of trees in such systems. Conceptual modelling evaluates the relative importance of design considerations for tree-based infiltration systems using a modified raingarden model. A case study of actual stormwater volume capture and tree transpiration is assessed for two infiltration system designs installed adjacent to mature Lophostemon confertus trees in a residential street of Melbourne, Australia. Water level and sap flow sensors monitored stormwater capture and transpiration over two spring-summer-autumn periods 1) October 2014 – April 2015 and 2) October 2015 – April 2016. The case study found control and design A treatments reduced transpiration in the second period likely due to a drier climate, while design B treatments slightly increased transpiration. Results from this study highlight important considerations for optimising design of tree based infiltration systems and suggest such systems could reduce stormwater runoff and support mature trees in urban environments.

Laura Gutierrez

Tecnalia Research and Innovatio España

Guide for mapping Nature Based Solutions (NBS) at city scale

TECNALIA has developed a guide for mapping Nature Based Solutions (NBS) at city scale towards climate change adaptation, which compiles a number of NBSs characterized by the climate threat to which their respond to (sea level rise, flooding, heat stress) and the environmental, social and economic co-benefits they provide.  The NBSs were also classified according to their implementation scale: building, public space, water bodies, transport infrastructure, rural areas and coast.
Donostia/San Sebastian was used as case study. As a result a NBS map was delivered built upon existing spatial data representing the geographical location and surface of:  i) current natural capital (i.e. urban parks, forests, lakes, green infrastructure) and ii) potential for NBS deployment throughout already existing urban elements (i.e. flat roofs to accommodate urban gardens, river channels to be re-naturalized). Beyond the climate challenges they must face, the urban morphology conditions the type of NBS to be implemented in the different districts.
The case study allowed the validation of the methodological process, and the conclusions and lessons learned have been gathered and included in the guide to help other cities to work with an ecosystem based adaptation approach.
The project was funded by the KLIMATEK Program for Innovative and Demonstration Projects within the Basque Climate Strategy 2050 and promoted by IHOBE (Public Agency of Environment of the Basque Government).
The definition of the methodology and its application in case study has been possible thanks to the collaboration of Udalsarea 21 (Network of Basque Municipalities Towards Sustainability) and Donostia/San Sebastian.

Lorena Pena

Elena González 1, Borja Pérez 1, Miren Onaindia 1, Igone Palacios 1, Ibone Ametzaga1, Amaia Asua2 , Iñaki Gamboa 3, Beatriz Fernández de Manuel 1

1 UNESCO Chair on Sustainable Development and Environmental Education of the University of the Basque Country (

2 Bilbao City Council. Department of Environment 3 Bilbao City Council. Public Gardens and Parks Department

Supply and demand of ecosystem services for Urban Green Infrastructure planning

 Urban Green Infrastructure provides a variety of ecosystem services (ES) to city-dwellers, such as air purification, climate regulation, urban temperature regulation, noise reduction, runoff mitigation and recreational opportunities, which often are not evenly distributed in the city. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze if the provision of these ES at the neighborhood level in the city of Bilbao is evenly distributed and meet the demand needs.

 It was mapped the different ES using the date provided by Derkzen (2015) for each green area (Figure 1 and Table 1). We also considered a 50 m buffer around the roads for the calculation of air purification and noise retention. Then, it was calculated the total value of each ES for each neighborhood (Figure 2). It was also calculated the demand of the ES using the number of inhabitants in each neighborhood as a proxy.

 The green areas of neighborhood placed in periurban areas provided more ES that those placed in the center, which are those that showed the highest demand. Thus, the Bilbao urban planning has to improve and increase the green areas of the center of the city, where the demand is high, to connect the green areas of the northern with of the southern to improve urban green infrastructure.

Martin Theill Johansen

Urban trees and LID

Healthy and vital trees within our cities contribute in many ways. They have a huge potential to provide ecosystem services in the urban areas, as well as supporting our need to continuously adapt to a changing climate. By combining trees and water retention we could go one step further towards sustainable green streets.
Tree pits perform in a similar way to other infiltration practices regarding infiltration, biofiltration and storage. By handling water locally, we can enhance the benefits, services and contributions from the urban trees, as wells as improving life quality in the city and mowing towards more liveable and resilient cities.
This presentation presents preliminary findings and lessons aimed at developing existing knowledge and practices on urban trees and LID into DeepGreen, based on a Scandinavian context. The findings are based on case studies from Copenhagen, and illustrates how the combination of urban trees, constructed in a suspended pavement system, and LID work together to form a storm water management system suited to densely populated areas. Our presentation includes aspects in relation to improving future tree vitality by increasing tree pit size, providing sufficient and uncompacted soil for root growth, and meeting the needs for irrigation, as well as the challenges with surface runoff containing sodium chloride, used for defrosting icy roads and sidewalks during wintertime.
If trees are used widely in LID practices, there is great potential to reduce storm water runoff and improve runoff quality, whilst improving root growth and tree vitality leading to increased canopy cover.

Paulo Farinha-Marques, Filipa Guilherme, Cláudia Fernades, Carla Gonçalves, and Catarina Patoilo Teixeira

(1) CIBIO-InBIO, Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources; (2) Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto, Portugal

Contributions for the planning of a green infrastructure in the city of Porto, Portugal

Although the legislation calls for the identification of an “ecological structure” in Portuguese municipalities, the concept of urban green infrastructure has not yet been fully integrated in the planning process of Portuguese cities. The revision of the Master Plan of Porto created the opportunity to study the potential green infrastructure of this city.
The first step was to identify and classify the most important natural areas and urban green spaces of the city, regarding its ecological and cultural importance. Urban green spaces were assessed on their habitat type (based on distinct vegetation land cover), potential fauna diversity (based on the area and habitat type) and heritage value (based on historic, artistic, aesthetic, or ecological considerations).
Porto’s natural and public green spaces occupy around 30% of the city, but only 4.5% are public recreational spaces (7.8 m2 per inhabitant). The analysis of the thematic maps allowed the recognition of the most relevant spaces, according to the occurrence of: 1) valuable natural areas; 2) large public green spaces; 3) high habitat importance and diversity; 4) high fauna richness; 5) high heritage value.
The potential green infrastructure was outlined considering the areas with higher density and proximity of valuable green spaces (nodes). The potential links between these areas (connectivity) were also identified and their main weaknesses were compensated by the proposal of feasible new green spaces, particularly those with public access. This culminated in the definition of a new planning strategy which embodied the green infrastructure of Porto.

Shira Jacobs
Collective Sublime AB,

Design of the physical environment and public health

Healthy places and communities are defined in terms of security, sustainability, and the potential for contact with nature (Largo & Wight, 2010). Urban green spaces (UGS) form an integral part of any urban area (Gupta et al 2012), and research has identified their association with several health outcomes. Examples include reduction of stress (Haluza et al. 2014, Maas et al. 2009; White et al. 2013), cardiovascular and pulmonary disease (Hu et al., 2007; Rao et al., 2014) and allergies (Hanski et al. 2012). Plants’ and trees’ ability to mitigate environmental hazards such as air and noise pollution (Vlachokostas et al. 2012) also contribute. In addition, green space has been identified as beneficial for mental health and well-being (White et al. 2013), and can influence social capital by providing meeting places and strengthening social support for the surrounding community (Barbosa et al., 2007; Maas et al., 2009). The built environment is considered a determinant for health and wellness. Places with a distinct character, history, and culture can be perceived as safer and more meaningful, allowing residents to create a personal bond. Urban green spaces not only provide ecosystem services but affect well-being by allowing for more social interaction, lowering stress, and improving mood. The fact that green spaces are associated with health outcomes indicates that access to vegetation in the urban environment is linked to public health in several interconnected ways and can have significant benefits for society. A preliminary study of the Bagarmossen and Tensta districts in Stockholm confirm these findings, although more research is needed.

Shira Jacobs
Collective Sublime AB,

The micro-park as an integral piece of green infrastructure

Cities across the globe are rapidly densifying, creating pressures on existing green spaces and ageing infrastructure. The transformation of cities into more sustainable environments often focusses on the construction of new districts that are designed from scratch. Green retrofits are often overlooked and/or underfunded yet are crucial to a resilient city. Micro-parks integrate social aspects with ecological aspects – and cities stand to gain financially. A tiny intervention with a large resilience factor, climate-smart micro parks combine sustainable storm water management, the creation of public space, and high biodiversity. Their goal is to generate pleasant meeting places along inner city streets while adding ecosystem services. Stormwater that would otherwise be released into ageing combined sewer systems is both slowed and cleansed with vegetation. Strategically placed where there is a lack of public space and urban greenery, and a high probability of flooding, micro-parks can create new habitats for people, birds, and insects. Transforming city streets with micro-parks could be both simpler and faster than current planning accounts for. Attitudes and habits related to car use are changing, with the increase of bike and car share systems and car-to-go services. Fewer and smaller vehicles will shrink transport requirements, reducing the need for parking spaces. This significant shift means streets can potentially become vibrant outdoor rooms with ecosystem services rather than utilitarian parking lots.  A prototype micro-park was built and temporarily installed on Katarinavägen in Stockholm during June, 2015. The challenges and benefits of this pilot project will be discussed.

Xiu-Juan Qiao

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Current status and outcomes of sustainable stormwater management in the perspective of governance

Due to climate change and increased urbanization, traditional piped drainage systems have been challenged during the past decades. Most research related to sustainable stormwater management, has paid attention to modelling of runoff and peak flow reduction from rain gardens and green roofs, as well as to stormwater quality, such as reducing heavy metals and phosphorus pollution. L attention has been paid to the governance perspectives in relation to stormwater management, especially to understand the perspectives and perceptions of the actors engaged in stormwater management e.g. water professionals, landscape architects, urban planners, and citizens. 
This paper aims to understand the current status and outcomes of sustainable stormwater management in the perspective of governance by conducting a systematic literature review based on the policy arrangement model by arts et al (2006). In total more than 750 papers have been reviewed, filtered and grouped within a parallel search process. The results show that there exists three main research areas related to sustainable storm water management : (a) policies, strategies and legislations; (b) resources available, e.g. land, financial; (c) public participation.

Alison Chisholm

Lothians & Fifi GREEN Network Partnership

Planning of the green network in Fife

The 2013 Local Development Plan ‘FIFEplan’ background paper ‘Green Networks in Fife’ prepared by Fife Council and Scottish Natural Heritage describes the core principles of green networks as:
• Connectivity: Linking people and places and providing habitats and corridors for species movement.
• Multi-functionality: the provision of multiple functions on individual sites through the integration of different activities and land uses, to maximise efficiency of land use.
This background paper informed ‘FIFEplan’, setting out recommendations on how green networks should be applied and spatially defined.Through a series of ‘place based green network’ workshops, the Lyne Burn corridor was identified as a settlement level green network within Dunfermline serving the communities of Touch, Abbeyview, Woodmill and wider Dunfermline. Key green network functions were identified as: habitat corridor, urban watercourse, greenspace, active travel routes, landscape setting.
By reviewing the green network assets listed by the Green Networks in Fife background paper, an opportunity was identified to deliver the different strands of green networks for the Lyne Burn. A project feasibility group was convened by the Lothians and Fife Green Network Partnership to explore potential for river restoration and greenspace improvements ensuring that maximum potential was delivered through co-ordinated action.
This initial group included Fife Council and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. A green network project brief was developed with the aim of delivering improvements to the water.